The WASH Bottleneck Analysis Tool analyses the complex interplay of institutional structures and processes that determine how effectively human, material and financial inputs are turned
into sustainable access to drinking-water supply, sanitation and hygiene. It provides a rational evidence-based approach for formulating an investment strategy for multiple sectors aims of efficiency, equity and sustainability.
Ensuring the sustainability of investments in the WASH sector remains a major challenge in ma
ny parts of the world. WASH projects still fail within a few years of completion, putting access to safe and sustainable drinking water and sanitation at risk. Communities that still have access to water and sanitation services struggle with poor service provision. Good governance of the WASH sector, within an accountability framework, is crucial for the national sector to deliver sustainable results at scale.
This brochure presents an overview of the WASH Accountability Mapping Tools, a set of methods developed for assisting groups in understanding accountability relations in their WASH context and planning improvement actions. Accountability mapping tools are participatory instruments developed to assess the status and quality of accountability lines within the water and sanitation sector. They enable participants to review practices in any country at the local or sector level. The mapping helps to identify the accountability weaknesses to be addressed, the actors who should be engaged in this work and potential improvement actions.
Methodological Process for Strengthening National Humanitarian WASH Coordination
This methodological process guides the user in defining elements of a strategic plan for transition to nationally led humanitarian WASH coordination.
It is intended for use by UNICEF and partners in convening country Humanitarian WASH dialogue in the context of sector wide reform initiatives.
Grounded on the human rights-based approach the methodology describes vulnerability to hazards and shocks, national systems capacity to prevent and manage shocks and ability to mitigate underlying threats of conflict within both rural and urban environments as key functions. It presents ten determinants grouped into four domains representing the Enabling Environment, Institutional and Regulatory Environment, Capacity and Services, and Quality Standards, necessary to develop a strategic action plan for transition from Cluster-led to nationally-led Humanitarian WASH coordination systems.
This assessment tool is developed by WHO and UNICEF with input from experts and stakeholders and provides the evidence about bottlenecks in the immunization supply chain.
Based on this assessment, comprehensive immunization supply chain strengthening improvement plans can be developed and financed to assure availability of vaccines and that vaccines remain potent and ensure efficient use of resources.
This toolkit provides policymakers and practitioners with an applied and adaptable framework with which to assess the state
of coordination in their social protection systems. It also provides examples of efforts to improve coordination from different countries around the world. The toolkit is structured to delineate various levels of coordination, outline a practical assessment methodology for users to apply in various country contexts to determine the level of existing and needed coordination, and provide concrete experiences from countries that illustrate ways to improve coordination in social protection.
These guidelines present eight financing alternatives, based on policy positions by the United Nations and international financial institutions, and show that fiscal space for s
ocial protection and the SDGs exists even in the poorest countries. Of the eight options, six increase the overall size of a country’s budget through increasing tax revenues, expanding social security coverage and contributory revenues, lobbying for increased aid and transfers, eliminating illicit financial flows, borrowing or restructuring debt, and adopting a more accommodative macroeconomic framework. The other two options are about redirecting existing resources from one area to another, in this case social protection by re-allocating public expenditures and tapping into fiscal and foreign exchange reserves.
The overarching goal of the Public Finance for Children (PF4C) Framework is to contribute to the realisation&
nbsp;of children’s rights by supporting the best possible use of public budgets. The framework is aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child General Comment No. 19 on Public Budgeting for the Realization of Child Rights, as well as with UNICEF’s 2018-21 Strategic Plan.
The PF4C aims to ensure that sufficient resources are allocated for child-related policies and programmes and that results-based budgeting and value for money approaches are adopted. It also aims to ensure that resources are better distributed and that citizens, including children and adolescents, are empowered to monitor and participate in budget processes.
These guidelines aim to strengthen the capacity of UNICEF and partners in creating opportunities for children with disabilities to exercise their right to be heard and taken seriously.
UNICEF’s work on disability is based on a human rights approach, with a focus on equity. It has been developed within the framework of inclusive development, and actively promotes the social model of disability. A central tenet is that legislation, policies and programmes must be informed and shaped by the children they will affect and that participation is a foundational principle of a rights-based approach.
This methodological brief prepared by UNICEF’s Office of Research describes the ‘theory of change’ approach, explaining how activities are understood to produce a series of results that contribute to
achieving the final intended impacts. It can be developed for any level of intervention – an event, a project, a programme, a policy, a strategy or an organisation. By identifying and tightly planning objectives and activities in advanced, or during an intervention’s progress, a theory of change can determine how theyshould change and adapt in response to emerging issues and decisions made by partners and other stakeholders.
UNICEF’s national budget briefs supports the monitoring of budget allocations to sectors that are important for children in the current fiscal year, and assessment of the efficiency, effectiveness,
equity and adequacy of past spending. This brief can also inform advocacy through key messages for policy and financing changes and helps increase staff knowledge on budget issues linked to sector results.